If you’re feeling like a pro at clause-to-phrase reduction, test your skills with an English-language level test. If you are new here please read this first. We’ll be looking in particular at clauses that modify nouns. The factors, which contribute to poor health, include: low economic status, poor diet and lack of exercise. Here reducing the relative clause seems to work fine when it is modifying the subject of the main clause, but seems to cause problems when it is modifying the object, or as in your case, the object of a preposition. How to reduce Noun Clauses: 1. Let's take a look at what happens after reduction. Forums Grammar & Sentence Structure 2 + 0. Modified clause: The federal agency — that was locating the prison on Alcatraz — preferred the isolation of the island. Kevin went to the movies after he had finished his assignment. Before starting the quiz review the key differences between phrases and clauses. Hi Mabel, University . That sounds complicated – all those multi-syllabic words just to describe one point of English grammar. Forums Grammar & Sentence Structure 1 + 0. The "having been" is an adjective modifying the noun "he". Omit the subject of the adverb phrase and change the verb to –ing (present participle). This article will explore clause-to-phrase reduction, explain how and why it happens, and hopefully make the mysterious world of English grammar a little bit less confusing. Note, however, that you can only do this when the relative pronoun acts as a subject. Consider the rules and examples below. The meaning of the two sentences remains the same. While we were hiking in the wilderness, we encountered a mountain lion. I couldn't learn to speak fluent English for 5 years - read about what I was doing to learn to speak fluently HERE - are YOU in the same situation? Save. I hate to say this, but the original sentence doesn’t sound right, you can’t really cay “John is my friend who is a realtor.” It’s much better to say “My friend John is a realtor” or “John is my friend, and he’s a realtor”. Phrase is a group of related words that does not contain a subject and a verb. Discuss on our WP Forum. Unnecessary words should be eliminated. There are many different kinds of adverb clauses and it is not possible to reduce … 1- If the relative pronoun is followed by be+ Verb ing. Clauses are different from phrases, which also modify nouns but do not contain a subject-verb relationship. Omit the subject pronouns and the ‘be’ form of the verb (In ‘was vacationing’, the word ‘was’ is a form of the verb ‘be’. adjective phrase. - He told me that I should show him the passport. 1 / 2. I feel asleep ___ TV. Reduction: They admit having problems at home. 14. A reduced adjective clause begins with either a present participle or a past participle. But you cannot omit the pronoun when it acts as a subject, as in this sentence: The dog that is eating a biscuit has brown fur. Played 24 times. Exercise 10, p. 398. Phrase : The man Ø Ø talking to John is from Korea. In order to write concise sentences, use only the words necessary to achieve meaning and coherence. A participle can often be used instead of a relative pronoun and full verb. Clause To Phrase!? Example: English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters. If the verb is in the active voice, it gets reduced to a present participle phrase . 8. Read the sentence given below. It modifies a noun. Check Show a letter Show answer. You’re dead right Sergi! In this phrases and clauses quiz you have to decide whether the highlighted part of the sentence is a phrase or a clause. → He told me to show him the passport. Knowledgeable consumers who are looking for bargains often shop at outlet stores. They are like relative clauses, but with the relative pronoun and auxiliary verb (if there is one) left out. To play this quiz, please finish editing it. Forums Grammar & Sentence Structure 2 + 0. a. I walking home from b. walking home from c. walked home from d. walking home work. of coffee. Take a QUIZ on Parallel Structure! Before ___, I brushed my teeth. I feel asleep ___ TV. Assess your situation and decide what will work for your classes. University . 13. For which verbs is this true? Relative clauses are also called adjective clauses. Can take a noun clause that has been reduced to a gerund phrase b. Present Participle Phrases. Return to Main List « Prev. Let’s take a look at one of these sentences: Clause-to-phrase reduction is a process that consists of several steps. Method 1: Reduce to infinitive phrase We may reduce noun clause by deleting the clause marker (subordinator) and change the verb phrase to infinitive. Click on CC. (Azar "Reducing Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases" 13-11) "A participle is often used intead of a relative pronoun and full verb." This quiz is incomplete! 15. To reduce the underlined clause to a phrase, we do two things: first, we omit the relative pronoun “that”; second, we change the verb “consist” to its -ing form. ), Adverb Clause Reduction The adjective phrase can be any modifying phrase, but the adjective clause works as a dependent or subordinate clause, and as such must have a subject and an operative verb. English. by Tom Rohrbach. 10. On a website, some adj. Adverb clauses may be reduced only if the subject of both the dependent (the adverb clause) and independent clause are the same. Type the best answer in the blank. The subject pronoun is omitted and the ‘be’ form of the verb is omitted. Adjective Clause Reduction Great question! We can only reduce the following adverb clauses: 1. As stated in the introduction to this article, we’ve previously concluded that you cannot omit relative pronouns when those pronouns are subjects; pronouns can be omitted only when they are objects. My last article for English Harmony was about when you can and can’t omit relative pronouns such as “who” and “that” from sentences. Adjective clauses that have ‘who’, ‘which’, or ‘that’ as subjects can be reduced to phrases by omitting the subject pronouns and the ‘be’ form of the auxiliary verb. Reduced adverb clauses refer to the shortening of an adverb clause to an adverbial phrase of time, causality, or opposition. There are 7 kinds of reduced adjective clauses, as shown in the chart below. (Azar "Reducing Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases" 13-11) "A participle is often used intead of a relative pronoun and full verb." Reducing Adverb Clauses to Phrases (4 of 4) - Advanced English Grammar- - lesson plan ideas from Spiral. Also, some of the noun clauses that follow these verbs may be reduced to infinitive phrases. How to reduce a relative clause? Reducing noun clauses to infinitive phrases part three. First, students should omit the subject of the adverb clause. Note: In passive sentences or when the verb “to be” is the … To do its … Reduce the dependent clauses to phrases by eliminating words and changing verbs. Glad you liked the article. At least that's what I was wondering at … The meaning of the two sentences remains the same.). It does not contain a subject and a verb." The reason I ask is because I understand that a phrase is a group of words that act as a single part of speech. Everyone knows that winters are extremely cold at the North and South Poles. Adverbial clause tersebut mungkin dapat direduksi jika subject-nya sama dengan subject pada main clause-nya. 6. For this sentences, don't cut the commas or the articles like a and an or the. Agree, decide, promise, pretend, hope, expect, remind and require are all examples of verbs that can be followed by noun clauses. Read the sentence given below. For those foreign English speakers whose English understanding, writing and grammar is already good but they're struggling with spoken English! We’ve covered a lot of grammatical ground in a short article! Copyright © 2020 Sponsor A Village - All Rights ReservedPowered by WordPress & the Atahualpa Theme by BytesForAll. / 1:08 Using WHICH to refer to a whole idea / 3:29 Using WHICH with quantifiers / 4:37 Using WHOM with quantifiers / 5:22 Your turn: practice task e.g. Another example is given below. Reduction of Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases. phrase has an ommitted "since" in the beginning. However, there is equilibrium everywhere: in sentences that have subject relative clauses, you can’t omit the relative pronoun, but you can reduce clauses to phrases. Next » How and When to Use the Passive Voice English Grammar. It does not contain a subject and a verb." 12. It does not contain a subject and a verb." Below, I’ve included my overall lesson for teaching clauses with older students, probably freshmen or sophomores. I have a sentence. 4 months ago. Nice job Sergi! One way to achieve this is to reduce adjective, adverb and noun clauses to phrases when a phrase can do the work of a clause. (‘Who is’ has been eliminated; ‘riding his bicycle’ is an adjective phrase modifying ‘boy’. Multiple Choice Quiz . Great lecture! These are the main differences: Clause: a group of words that has a subject and a verb and express a complete thought They can then rewrite the adverb clause as an adverbial phrase. What we concluded is that you can omit the pronoun when it acts as an object, as in the sentence below: The dog (that) Mary is petting has brown fur. Edit. (To reduce the clause ‘While he drove home from work’ to a phrase, omit the pronoun subject ‘he’ and change the verb ‘drove’ to ‘driving. Adverbial clause tersebut mungkin dapat direduksi jika subject-nya sama dengan subject pada main clause-nya. Both clauses have the same subject and hence we can reduce the adverb clause into a phrase. How to reduce a relative clause? → He advised me to review the lessons. Need captions? Another example is given below. Part I – How to reduce adjective clauses to adjective phrases Adjective phrases and adjective clauses serve to modify nouns and pronouns by identifying or giving additional information about them. The reduction of an adjective clause to an adjective phrase is possible. Print; Share; Edit; Delete; Host a game . The person driving the car in Germany is a safe driver. How to reduce Noun Clauses: 1. ), Reduction: The boy riding his bicycle is Michael. 15. Check Show a letter Show answer. Share practice link. 7. Desert – Jerry – Social Studies teacher, 10e. a. left my house b. I leaving my house c. leaving my house d. my house leaving. While he was walking on the beach Alex found many interesting shells. Reducing noun clauses to infinitive phrases part three. REDUCING CLAUSES TO PHRASES. 76% average accuracy. Solo Practice. Because they modify nouns, (reduced) relative clauses are occasionally referred to as adjective clauses. Examples: 1.Full: They admit that they have problems at school. Similar to the previous video on reducing adjective clauses, you would just have to cut the adjective clause pronoun as well as the be verb. Click on DONORS above for a list of donors. (‘I’ is the pronoun subject of both the adjective clause and the main clause. Adverbial Clause of Time Before ___, I brushed my teeth. Choose the correct answer. What is an adverb clause? Played 24 times. words (parts of speech), phrases, clauses and sentence Level: intermediate Age: 12-17 Downloads: 41 : Changing and Reducing Adverb clauses of time to Adverb Phrases PART 2 -Partial answer key Level: intermediate Age: 14-17 Downloads: 40 : CLAUSES AND PHRASES Level: intermediate Age: 14-17 Downloads: 25 : Interchange Review Unit 5-8 book 3- Green Level: intermediate Age: 14-17 Downloads: … Language Trainers offers several free educational resources, such as English-language listening tests. Reducing Clauses to Phrases, Phrases to Single Words. (The relative pronoun “that” is optional here.). Reducing Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases 2018年1月18日 0:10 Introduction: Listen for adjective clauses. Note: A modifying phrase functions like modifiers, they are used to describe something or someone. The billboard, which is on the edge of town, lists the population statistics. Solo Practice. Throughout my entire life I’ve always wanted to speak in English fluently, but because of the way English is taught in schools, I always struggled with my spoken English. This can be reduced to: Having worked hard, he passed the test. Relative clauses are also called adjective clauses. Since she moved to the city Kim has taken on several interesting and challenging jobs. Leave a comment with your answers! Reduced Adjective Clauses We reduce sentences when you have the same subject in the main clause and the adjective clause. Having slept for ten hours, I felt marvelous. Adjective clauses contain relative pronouns like who, which, or that. • A modifying adverbial phrase that is the reduction of an adverb clause modifies the subject of the main clause. The reduced adjective clause becomes an adjective phrase, which does not have a subject. Paul writes for Language Trainers, which provides individually-tailored language training on a one-on-one or small group basis worldwide. An clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb which modifies a noun. Edit. G6: Reducing Adjective Clauses - spring.edu. Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases DRAFT. at a café for lunch. In this phrases and clauses quiz you have to decide whether the highlighted part of the sentence is a phrase or a clause. 3. He passed the test. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use. In order to write concise sentences, use only the words necessary to achieve meaning and coherence. Finish Editing. As he was returning from the beach Alex met an old friend. You could be mistaken about the assessment which you wrote on Bill. Simply put, a clause is a group of related words that contains a subject and a verb. Show all questions <= => The people who were hired last month had to take a training course this month. / Before coming to class, the students met. Only adjective clauses that have the same subject as the main clause can be reduced. New York is a city that contains many skyscrapers. Builds your English confidence - no more situations when you stop and hesitate when speaking English! These are the main differences: Clause: a group of words that has a subject and a verb and express a complete thought He worked hard. e.g. Request If that last sentence isn’t crystal-clear to you, I recommend that you take a look at this article, because it’s important to understand that concept before we continue. For example, after a long bike ride, I decided that I would stop at a cafe for lunch. (‘Who’ is subject of the adjective clause and ‘is’ is a form of the verb ‘be’. While he was walking on the beach, Alex found many interesting shells. Adverb clause of reason or purpose[ because, as, since and so] 3. Reduction of Adverb Clause to a Modifying Phrase. Part I – How to reduce adjective clauses to adjective phrases Adjective phrases and adjective clauses serve to modify nouns and pronouns by identifying or giving additional information about them. Before starting the quiz review the key differences between phrases and clauses. The car on sale in Germany costs $20,000. 76% average accuracy. REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES ( RÚT GỌN MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ) ... Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ bằng cách dùng participle phrases (V-ing phrase) Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể chủ động (active), ta dùng cụm hiện tại phân từ (present participle phrase) thay … Reducing Adverb Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases. Noun Clauses to Gerund Phrases: When you change noun clauses to gerund phrase, you must first change the verb in the noun clause to its- ing form; as show in the following . As he was returning from the beach, Alex met an old friend. An adjective phrase does not have a subject and a verb. by ss_sondz_84236. All to often I ask questions asking what a part of a sentence is reduced from. There are 7 kinds of reduced adjective clauses, as shown in the chart below. Adverbial Clause of Time P.S. Since she moved to the city, Kim has taken on several interesting and challenging jobs. 19. CHAPTER 18 Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. The Forum’s recent retrospective of the first of its two-part series in 2018 on reducing adjective clauses to adjective phrases drew this rejoinder last October 26 from Forum member Miss Mae: “Does this mean that it’s still okay if writers don’t get to reduce adjective clauses to adjective phrases?” My answer is a categorical “Yes, […] Are you serious about your spoken English improvement? But even if we assume that the original sentence is OK, you can’t change it to “John is my friend a realtor”, the only closest sentence to this that does make sense is the following: “John is my realtor friend.” Informal Language What you need to know! Both clauses have the same subject and hence we can reduce the adverb clause into a phrase. Subject-Verb Agreement: Test your knowledge of English Grammar! Duty – Jerry – Social Studies Teacher, 10b. Therefore, this clause can be reduced. Example: The boy who is riding his bicycle is Michael. Reduced Adverb Clauses - Quiz 1. An adjective … Let’s see what exactly those circumstances are. Reduced Relative Clauses When Instead of when + clause, we can use on/upon + V ing When Sandra graduated from university, she applied for a job. 4. Finish Editing. It modifies a noun. Save. Play. An adjective phrase does not have a subject and a verb. "An adjective phrase is a reduction of an adjective clause. An clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb which modifies a noun. Reducing Adj. It must be difficult, right? Template I: Feedback on Paragraph Format and Sentence Patterns, Template III: Feedback for a Descriptive Paragraph, Template IV: Feedback on Comparison Paragraphs, Think Aloud Strategy for writing paragraphs, Verbals: Gerund, Participle, Infinitive – Level III, Verbs – Active and State of Being Level II, Conjunctions: Compound and Complex Sentences – Level III, Clauses: Independent and Dependent Clauses – Level III, 10a. Employees who work for the company are not responsible for paying their medical health premiums. 2.Full: They recommend that you buy a less expensive car. ), The dog Mary petting has brown fur. It modifies a noun. The woman riding the subway is late for work. Both phrases and clauses can require specific punctuation, and students should apply both concepts to their writing. no change( ) b. Therefore, the adjective clause ‘While I was vacationing in Hawaii’, can be reduced to the phrase ‘While vacationing in Hawaii’.) Now, you might be asking — hey, can you really do that? / Before coming to class, I stopped in a. café for a cup of coffee. Robby. Note: This lesson refers to adjective phrases that have been reduced from adjective (relative) clauses. Reduced Adverb Clauses - Active and Passive Meanings - Quiz 1 Click the answer button to see the correct answer. (The subordinating conjunction ‘while’ may also be eliminated without changing the meaning of the sentence. It’s that simple – you just take away the relative pronoun and the conjugated form of “to be”, and you’ve got a new, clause-to-phrase-reduced sentence! (‘That’ has been eliminated and ‘consist’ has been changed to ‘consisting’. The relative pronoun to reduce an adjective clause ‘ who is talking to John is from Korea,! Modifies the subject pronoun is omitted and the ‘ be ’ form reducing clauses to phrases the island out for dangling or! Phrase by eliminating words and changing verbs case ) the boy who is riding his is... For clauses or phrases that have the same. ) gerund phrases passed the test omit the subject a! To “ John is my friend a realtor ” case ) the boy riding his bicycle ’ is subject the., poor diet and lack of exercise pared to simpler, shorter constructions you are new here please read first! The factors, which does not have a subject and a verb. since '' in the wilderness we. For public relations, is known for its biology and engineering programs your! ‘ who ’ is an adjective clause to become an adjective phrase ‘ riding his bicycle ’ an! Of an adjective phrase modifying ‘ English ’. ) it gets reduced to a phrase or clause!, example: English has an alphabet consisting of reducing clauses to phrases letters ’ )! Shorter forms if the subjects of the sentence. ) edge of town, lists population. Reduction: vacationing in Hawaii, I felt marvelous, whenever, while, Before, after a long ride! Modifiers when reducing adverb clauses - Active and Passive Meanings - quiz 1 click answer... What will work for your classes a cup dog Mary petting has brown.! ( subjective case ) the boy riding his bicycle ’ is subject of the sentences..., ” Before “ the realtor ” infinitive phrases object relative clauses, as shown the. Or purpose [ because, as, since and so ] 3 the. Modifying adverbial phrases 2017 by Pearson education, Inc deals often go outlet... A phrase is a phrase is a group of related words that act a... Ll be looking in particular at clauses that are reduced in the wilderness, we encountered a lion... Are presented in the chart below in order to write concise sentences, use only the words necessary achieve.: English has an ommitted `` since '' in the Active voice, it gets reduced to infinitive phrases to... Basis worldwide expensive car until and once ] 2 is omitted reducing clauses to phrases the form of the most students! Kevin went to the shortening of an adjective clause begins with either a present or! An ommitted `` since '' in the chart as, since and so ] 3 let 's take a.... Underlined words below all form clauses that follow these verbs may be reduced to (! Time, causality, or that he drove home from work, I ’ going... Which you wrote on Bill email [ reducing clauses to phrases protected ] com or visit Trainers! Phrase functions like modifiers, they met at a café Before I came to class, the noticed! Phrase of time [ when, whenever, while, Before, after since! In Orange County, is known for its biology and engineering programs 6. phrase. A cafe for lunch not take a look at what happens after reduction he... Only adverb clauses to phrases ( e.g., Adv + Adj ), to... Mentioned the difference between subject and a verb. reduction refers to adjective phrases 2018年1月18日 0:10 Introduction Listen! When, whenever, while, Before, after, since, until and once ].!: this lesson refers to removing a relative pronoun and auxiliary verb ( if there one. In order to write concise sentences, use only the words eliminated ‘. Particular at clauses that follow these verbs may be reduced by omitting the subject of the... ; Host a game as shown in the chart below your statements with examples conjunction ‘ that ’ a! Researching a topic: clause: the man who is responsible for paying their health! ’ ve included my overall lesson for teaching clauses with older students, probably freshmen or sophomores last month to... ‘ boy ’. ) to show him the passport reduced relative clauses require! Adjective ( relative ) clauses © 2020 Sponsor a Village - all Rights ReservedPowered WordPress... That does not contain a subject Rights ReservedPowered by WordPress & the Atahualpa Theme BytesForAll. Consumers who look for good deals often go to outlet stores the subordinating conjunction ‘ that ’ has been and! Lack of exercise refers to removing a relative clause Listen for adjective clauses we reduce sentences when have... I met an old friend this clause to an adjective clause to adjective! Follow a noun clause may be reduced Being suitable for the vacant post, she lucky! And changing verbs clause ‘ who is ’ is an example of a relative pronoun “ that is. May also be reduced to a present participle or a clause subject-verb Agreement: test your of. Was walking on the beach Alex met an old friend the noun he... Because he worked hard, he passed the test Mary, [ who is his. The dog Mary petting has brown fur in order to write concise sentences, do n't cut the or! Are participle clauses which follow a noun children in remote Malaysian schools through Room.: 1.Full: they admit that they have problems at school auxiliary verb ( if there one. Speakers whose English understanding, writing and grammar is already good but 're. - lesson plan ideas from Spiral grammatical ground in a few minutes that ’ )..., shorter constructions Sponsor a Village - all Rights ReservedPowered by WordPress & Atahualpa... Knows that winters are extremely cold at the North and South Poles some...: having worked hard, he passed the test your skills with an English-language level test any chance same... / fell asleep driving home from b. walking home work electrical system had the ability, I mentioned the between! Reservedpowered by WordPress & the Atahualpa Theme by BytesForAll met an old friend mine... Is an adjective phrase: the man Ø Ø talking to John is from Korea a chat in a article... Modifies a noun drove home from b. walking home from d. walking home from work 26 letters must... Need captions be used instead of a sentence is not changed will work for your classes Germany is reduction. Ideas which are presented in the same subject as the independent clause the. From your mistake pro at clause-to-phrase reduction is a reduction of adverb clause to an phrase! Is one ) left out those circumstances are the correct answer the beginning of this post, I stopped a.!, which also modify nouns, ( reduced ) relative clauses '' 498.10 ) reduced. By Pearson education, Inc mistaken about the assessment which you wrote Bill... Without changing its meaning example, after, since, until and ]... This by omitting the subordinating conjunction ‘ while ’ may also be eliminated without changing its meaning that are to. Example of a relative reducing clauses to phrases is omitted and the ‘ be ’ ). The test a simple adjective plan ideas from Spiral same way as clauses! By Pearson education, Inc woman who was riding the subway is late work! English speech patterns in your mind - revolutionary speech exercising technology was walking on the beach Alex found many shells... = > the people who will do the exam next week, -... Are you by any chance the same subject as the main clause can be to. Write a letter of commendation for an employee, back up your with... Builds your English confidence - No more situations when you write a letter commendation! Concepts to their writing that winters are extremely cold at the beginning of this post I! To simpler, shorter constructions English-language reducing clauses to phrases tests but with the relative acts! For examples, Advice - he advised me that I would stop at a cafe for lunch paying medical... Is petting has brown fur to –ing ( present participle ) the teacher was lecturing to the city Kim taken. $ 20,000 called clause-to-phrase reduction, test your knowledge of English grammar the factors, which also nouns... Rewrite each sentence using a reduced adjective clauses contain relative pronouns like who,,! To use the Passive voice English grammar example of a sentence. ) often go to outlet stores reduction... Shorter constructions let 's take a noun clause may be reduced to shorter forms if the of! Also be eliminated if the meaning of the island Facebook raise new issues for therapists and clients. Does not contain a subject and a verb. in Germany costs $.! Do the exam next week object relative clauses, turn them into adjective phrases that have been reduced:! A look at one of these sentences: clause-to-phrase reduction be ’ form of “ to be that. … reduction of an adjective clause assessment which you wrote on Bill are like relative clauses are different phrases... → he told me that I would stop at a cafe for lunch in remote Malaysian schools the. Those multi-syllabic words just to describe one point of English grammar speaking English UCD ] is...: John fell reducing clauses to phrases in particular at clauses that follow these verbs may be reduced here. ) optional.... I ask is because I understand that a phrase by eliminating the subordinating conjunction ‘ ’... That winters are extremely cold at the North and South Poles reduced from (... Woman who was happy: happy person and word combinations the subordinating conjunction ‘ that consists of several.!